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Telus is not blocking you from using a Wi-Fi extender. As a matter of fact, they sell them. You are going to need to do a bit of sleuthing tomlearn why your device is not repeating the Wi-Fi signal to your garage.
The checkmark on your phone has zero to do with the internet. It basically shows your phone has connected to the Dlink itself. Whether or not the Dlink is still connected to the main home wireless network will be the big question. If you take your phone closer to the Telus gateway in the house, does it connect fully to the wireless?
For best results you might want to check with Dlink as their product support pages usually have FAQs and the manuals on them. If you have the DLink DAP 1610 >> http://support.dlink.ca/ProductInfo.aspx?m=DAP-1610