Telus won't block all spam that their filter detects by default because no spam filter is 100% accurate. You can get the tech support people to set Telus's filters to flag all messages it thinks are spam if that isn't the setting already. Any that are not flagged will come through as regular email. It's never recommended to automatically delete spam since there's still a chance a non-spam message may be caught by a spam filter. Spammers are always finding new ways to get around filters. You can also set up specific filters in Outlook, if you know how, and if you want to block specific individual things like a specific sender or a specific word.
As for Outlook, that will very specifically depend on how your copy of Outlook is configured. That includes whether your email account is set up as IMAP or not, what it's set to do to filter spam, and whether or not you launch Outlook BEFORE you receive any email on your mobile device. That will mean your laptop will need to be powered on and on the internet 24/7. It'll also depend on the spam as well. Outlook is not known for having a robust spam filter compared to what you'll find on say Gmail for example. Gmail in my opinion is probably one of the best I've seen and used.