If you updated the apps in iTunes, then synced the iPhone, there should be no use of cellular data. If you used the App store application (on the iPhone) while connected to WiFi, there should be no use of cellular data. If you used the App store Application while connected only to cellular, there would be cellular data consumed.
You can update Apps in iTunes without the phone being connected to the computer. Just go to "Library" then select "Apps" from the drop down on the left of the screen. (ITunes 11.1)
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